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『Free as in Freedom』の第11章「Open Source」の訳文(yomoyomo訳)です。
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-11 Open Source
-11
-**************
-
-   In November, 1995, Peter Salus, a member of the Free Software
-Foundation and author of the 1994 book, `A Quarter Century of Unix',
-issued a call for papers to members of the GNU Project's
-"system-discuss" mailing list. Salus, the conference's scheduled
-chairman, wanted to tip off fellow hackers about the upcoming
-Conference on Freely Redistributable Software in Cambridge,
-Massachusetts. Slated for February, 1996 and sponsored by the Free
-Software Foundation, the event promised to be the first engineering
-conference solely dedicated to free software and, in a show of unity
-with other free software programmers, welcomed papers on "any aspect of
-GNU, Linux, NetBSD, 386BSD, FreeBSD, Perl, Tcl/tk, and other tools for
-which the code is accessible and redistributable." Salus wrote:
-1995111994
-UNIX1/4
-GNU
-
-
-
-19962
-
-
-GNU
-GNULinuxNetBSD386BSDFreeBSDPerlTcl/tk
-
-
-
-     Over the past 15 years, free and low-cost software has become
-     ubiquitous. This conference will bring together implementers of
-     several different types of freely redistributable software and
-     publishers of such software (on various media). There will be
-     tutorials and refereed papers, as well as keynotes by Linus
-     Torvalds and Richard Stallman.(1)
-     15
-
-
-
-
-
-     (1)
-
-   One of the first people to receive Salus' email was conference
-committee member Eric S. Raymond. Although not the leader of a project
-or company like the various other members of the list, Raymond had
-built a tidy reputation within the hacker community as a major
-contributor to GNU Emacs and as editor of `The New Hacker Dictionary',
-a book version of the hacking community's decade-old Jargon File.
-
-S
-
- GNU Emacs
-10 Jargon File  The New Hacker Dictionary
-
-
-   For Raymond, the 1996 conference was a welcome event. Active in the
-GNU Project during the 1980s, Raymond had distanced himself from the
-project in 1992, citing, like many others before him, Stallman's
-"micro-management" style. "Richard kicked up a fuss about my making
-unauthorized modifications when I was cleaning up the Emacs LISP
-libraries," Raymond recalls. "It frustrated me so much that I decided I
-didn't want to work with him anymore."
-1996
-1980 GNU
-
-1992 GNU
- Emacs LISP
-
-
-
-
-   Despite the falling out, Raymond remained active in the free software
-community. So much so that when Salus suggested a conference pairing
-Stallman and Torvalds as keynote speakers, Raymond eagerly seconded the
-idea. With Stallman representing the older, wiser contingent of ITS/Unix
-hackers and Torvalds representing the younger, more energetic crop of
-Linux hackers, the pairing indicated a symbolic show of unity that could
-only be beneficial, especially to ambitious younger (i.e., below 40)
-hackers such as Raymond. "I sort of had a foot in both camps," Raymond
-says.
-
-
-
- ITS/Unix
- Linux
-
-40
-
-
-
-   By the time of the conference, the tension between those two camps
-had become palpable. Both groups had one thing in common, though: the
-conference was their first chance to meet the Finnish _wunderkind_ in
-the flesh. Surprisingly, Torvalds proved himself to be a charming,
-affable speaker. Possessing only a slight Swedish accent, Torvalds
-surprised audience members with his quick, self-effacing wit.(2) Even
-more surprising, says Raymond, was Torvalds' equal willingness to take
-potshots at other prominent hackers, including the most prominent
-hacker of all, Richard Stallman. By the end of the conference,
-Torvalds' half-hacker, half-slacker manner was winning over older and
-younger conference-goers alike.
-
-
-
-
-
-(2)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-   "It was a pivotal moment," recalls Raymond. "Before 1996, Richard was
-the only credible claimant to being the ideological leader of the entire
-culture. People who dissented didn't do so in public. The person who
-broke that taboo was Torvalds."
-1996
-
-
-
-
-   The ultimate breach of taboo would come near the end of the show.
-During a discussion on the growing market dominance of Microsoft
-Windows or some similar topic, Torvalds admitted to being a fan of
-Microsoft's PowerPoint slideshow software program. From the perspective
-of old-line software purists, it was like a Mormon bragging in church
-about his fondness of whiskey. From the perspective of Torvalds and his
-growing band of followers, it was simply common sense. Why shun worthy
-proprietary software programs just to make a point? Being a hacker
-wasn't about suffering, it was about getting the job done.
-
-Microsoft Windows
- Microsoft  PowerPoint
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-   "That was a pretty shocking thing to say," Raymond remembers. "Then
-again, he was able to do that, because by 1995 and 1996, he was rapidly
-acquiring clout."
-
-19951996
-
-
-   Stallman, for his part, doesn't remember any tension at the 1996
-conference, but he does remember later feeling the sting of Torvalds'
-celebrated cheekiness. "There was a thing in the Linux documentation
-which says print out the GNU coding standards and then tear them up,"
-says Stallman, recalling one example. "OK, so he disagrees with some of
-our conventions. That's fine, but he picked a singularly nasty way of
-saying so. He could have just said `Here's the way I think you should
-indent your code.' Fine. There should be no hostility there."
-1996
-
-Linux GNU
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-   For Raymond, the warm reception other hackers gave to Torvalds'
-comments merely confirmed his suspicions. The dividing line separating
-Linux developers from GNU/Linux developers was largely generational.
-Many Linux hackers, like Torvalds, had grown up in a world of
-proprietary software. Unless a program was clearly inferior, most saw
-little reason to rail against a program on licensing issues alone.
-Somewhere in the universe of free software systems lurked a program
-that hackers might someday turn into a free software alternative to
-PowerPoint. Until then, why begrudge Microsoft the initiative of
-developing the program and reserving the rights to it?
-
-Linux  GNU/Linux
-
- Linux
-
-
- PowerPoint
-
- Microsoft
-
-   As a former GNU Project member, Raymond sensed an added dynamic to
-the tension between Stallman and Torvalds. In the decade since
-launching the GNU Project, Stallman had built up a fearsome reputation
-as a programmer. He had also built up a reputation for intransigence
-both in terms of software design and people management. Shortly before
-the 1996 conference, the Free Software Foundation would experience a
-full-scale staff defection, blamed in large part on Stallman. Brian
-Youmans, a current FSF staffer hired by Salus in the wake of the
-resignations, recalls the scene: "At one point, Peter [Salus] was the
-only staff member working in the office."
- GNU
-
-GNU 10
-
-
-1996
-
- FSF  Brian Youmans
-
-
-
-   For Raymond, the defection merely confirmed a growing suspicion:
-recent delays such as the HURD and recent troubles such as the
-Lucid-Emacs schism reflected problems normally associated with software
-project management, not software code development. Shortly after the
-Freely Redistributable Software Conference, Raymond began working on
-his own pet software project, a popmail utility called "fetchmail."
-Taking a cue from Torvalds, Raymond issued his program with a tacked-on
-promise to update the source code as early and as often as possible.
-When users began sending in bug reports and feature suggestions,
-Raymond, at first anticipating a tangled mess, found the resulting
-software surprisingly sturdy. Analyzing the success of the Torvalds
-approach, Raymond issued a quick analysis: using the Internet as his
-"petri dish" and the harsh scrutiny of the hacker community as a form
-of natural selection, Torvalds had created an evolutionary model free
-of central planning.
-FSF  HURD
- Lucid-Emacs
-
-Freely Redistributable Software Conference
-
-fetchmail
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-   What's more, Raymond decided, Torvalds had found a way around Brooks'
-Law. First articulated by Fred P. Brooks, manager of IBM's OS/360
-project and author of the 1975 book, `The Mythical Man-Month', Brooks'
-Law held that adding developers to a project only resulted in further
-project delays. Believing as most hackers that software, like soup,
-benefits from a limited number of cooks, Raymond sensed something
-revolutionary at work. In inviting more and more cooks into the kitchen,
-Torvalds had actually found away to make the resulting software
-_better_.(3)
-
-IBM  OS/360
-1975
-P
-
-
-
-
-
-
-(3)
-
-   Raymond put his observations on paper. He crafted them into a speech,
-which he promptly delivered before a group of friends and neighbors in
-Chester County, Pennsylvania. Dubbed "The Cathedral and the Bazaar," the
-speech contrasted the management styles of the GNU Project with the
-management style of Torvalds and the kernel hackers. Raymond says the
-response was enthusiastic, but not nearly as enthusiastic as the one he
-received during the 1997 Linux Kongress, a gathering of Linux users in
-Germany the next spring.
-
-
-
-GNU
-
- Linux 1997
-Linux Kongress
-
-   "At the Kongress, they gave me a standing ovation at the end of the
-speech," Raymond recalls. "I took that as significant for two reasons.
-For one thing, it meant they were excited by what they were hearing.
-For another thing, it meant they were excited even after hearing the
-speech delivered through a language barrier."
-Linux Kongress
-
-
-
-
-   Eventually, Raymond would convert the speech into a paper, also
-titled "The Cathedral and the Bazaar." The paper drew its name from
-Raymond's central analogy. GNU programs were "cathedrals," impressive,
-centrally planned monuments to the hacker ethic, built to stand the
-test of time. Linux, on the other hand, was more like "a great babbling
-bazaar," a software program developed through the loose decentralizing
-dynamics of the Internet.
-
-
-GNU
-
- Linux
-
-
-
-   Implicit within each analogy was a comparison of Stallman and
-Torvalds. Where Stallman served as the classic model of the cathedral
-architect--i.e., a programming "wizard" who could disappear for 18
-months and return with something like the GNU C Compiler--Torvalds was
-more like a genial dinner-party host. In letting others lead the Linux
-design discussion and stepping in only when the entire table needed a
-referee, Torvalds had created a development model very much reflective
-of his own laid-back personality. From the Torvalds' perspective, the
-most important managerial task was not imposing control but keeping the
-ideas flowing.
-
-
-18GNU C
-
-
- Linux
-
-
-
-
-
-   Summarized Raymond, "I think Linus's cleverest and most consequential
-hack was not the construction of the Linux kernel itself, but rather his
-invention of the Linux development model."(4)
-
-Linux
- Linux (4)
-
-   In summarizing the secrets of Torvalds' managerial success, Raymond
-himself had pulled off a coup. One of the audience members at the Linux
-Kongress was Tim O'Reilly, publisher of O'Reilly & Associates, a company
-specializing in software manuals and software-related books (and the
-publisher of this book). After hearing Raymond's Kongress speech,
-O'Reilly promptly invited Raymond to deliver it again at the company's
-inaugural Perl Conference later that year in Monterey, California.
-
-Linux Kongress
-
- O'Reilly & Associates
-
-Linux Kongress
- O'Reilly & Associates
- Perl
-
-
-   Although the conference was supposed to focus on Perl, a scripting
-language created by Unix hacker Larry Wall, O'Reilly assured Raymond
-that the conference would address other free software technologies.
-Given the growing commercial interest in Linux and Apache, a popular
-free software web server, O'Reilly hoped to use the event to publicize
-the role of free software in creating the entire infrastructure of the
-Internet. From web-friendly languages such as Perl and Python to
-back-room programs such as BIND (the Berkeley Internet Naming Daemon),
-a software tool that lets users replace arcane IP numbers with the
-easy-to-remember domain-name addresses (e.g., amazon.com), and
-sendmail, the most popular mail program on the Internet, free software
-had become an emergent phenomenon. Like a colony of ants creating a
-beautiful nest one grain of sand at a time, the only thing missing was
-the communal self-awareness. O'Reilly saw Raymond's speech as a good
-way to inspire that self-awareness, to drive home the point that free
-software development didn't start and end with the GNU Project.
-Programming languages, such as Perl and Python, and Internet software,
-such as BIND, sendmail, and Apache, demonstrated that free software was
-already ubiquitous and influential. He also assured Raymond an even
-warmer reception than the one at Linux Kongress.
-Unix  Larry Wall
- Perl
-Perl
-Linux
-Apache
-
-Perl  Python
- IP
-amazon.com BINDthe Berkeley
-Internet Naming Daemon
-sendmail
-
-
-
- GNU
-Perl  Python
-BINDsendmail Apache
-
-
-Linux Kongress
-
-   O'Reilly was right. "This time, I got the standing ovation before the
-speech," says Raymond, laughing.
-
-
-
-   As predicted, the audience was stocked not only with hackers, but
-with other people interested in the growing power of the free software
-movement. One contingent included a group from Netscape, the Mountain
-View, California startup then nearing the end game of its three-year
-battle with Microsoft for control of the web-browser market.
-
-
-
-Microsoft  Netscape
-
-
-   Intrigued by Raymond's speech and anxious to win back lost market
-share, Netscape executives took the message back to corporate
-headquarters. A few months later, in January, 1998, the company
-announced its plan to publish the source code of its flagship Navigator
-web browser in the hopes of enlisting hacker support in future
-development.
-
- Netscape
-19981Netscape
- Navigator
-
-
-   When Netscape CEO Jim Barksdale cited Raymond's "Cathedral and the
-Bazaar" essay as a major influence upon the company's decision, the
-company instantly elevated Raymond to the level of hacker celebrity.
-Determined not to squander the opportunity, Raymond traveled west to
-deliver interviews, advise Netscape executives, and take part in the
-eventual party celebrating the publication of Netscape Navigator's
-source code. The code name for Navigator's source code was "Mozilla": a
-reference both to the program's gargantuan size--30 million lines of
-code--and to its heritage. Developed as a proprietary offshoot of
-Mosaic, the web browser created by Marc Andreessen at the University of
-Illinois, Mozilla was proof, yet again, that when it came to building
-new programs, most programmers preferred to borrow on older, modifiable
-programs.
-Netscape  CEO  Jim Barksdale Netscape
-
-
- Netscape
- Netscape Navigator
-Navigator
-Mozilla
-3000
-
-Mosaic  Mozilla
-
-
-
-   While in California, Raymond also managed to squeeze in a visit to VA
-Research, a Santa Clara-based company selling workstations with the
-GNU/Linux operating system preinstalled. Convened by Raymond, the
-meeting was small. The invite list included VA founder Larry Augustin, a
-few VA employees, and Christine Peterson, president of the Foresight
-Institute, a Silicon Valley think tank specializing in nanotechnology.
- GNU/Linux
-
- VA Research
-
-VA  Larry AugustinVA
- Foresight Institute  Christine Peterson
-
-
-   "The meeting's agenda boiled down to one item: how to take advantage
-of Netscape's decision so that other companies might follow suit?"
-Raymond doesn't recall the conversation that took place, but he does
-remember the first complaint addressed. Despite the best efforts of
-Stallman and other hackers to remind people that the word "free" in
-free software stood for freedom and not price, the message still wasn't
-getting through. Most business executives, upon hearing the term for
-the first time, interpreted the word as synonymous with "zero cost,"
-tuning out any follow up messages in short order. Until hackers found a
-way to get past this cognitive dissonance, the free software movement
-faced an uphill climb, even after Netscape.
-
-Netscape
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Netscape
-
-
-   Peterson, whose organization had taken an active interest in
-advancing the free software cause, offered an alternative: open source.
-
- Peterson
-
-   Looking back, Peterson says she came up with the open source term
-while discussing Netscape's decision with a friend in the public
-relations industry. She doesn't remember where she came upon the term
-or if she borrowed it from another field, but she does remember her
-friend disliking the term.(5)
- Netscape
- Peterson
-
-(5)
-
-   At the meeting, Peterson says, the response was dramatically
-different. "I was hesitant about suggesting it," Peterson recalls. "I
-had no standing with the group, so started using it casually, not
-highlighting it as a new term." To Peterson's surprise, the term caught
-on. By the end of the meeting, most of the attendees, including Raymond,
-seemed pleased by it.
-Peterson
-
- Peterson
-
-Peterson
-
-
-
-   Raymond says he didn't publicly use the term "open source" as a
-substitute for free software until a day or two after the Mozilla launch
-party, when O'Reilly had scheduled a meeting to talk about free
-software. Calling his meeting "the Freeware Summit," O'Reilly says he
-wanted to direct media and community attention to the other deserving
-projects that had also encouraged Netscape to release Mozilla. "All
-these guys had so much in common, and I was surprised they didn't all
-know each other," says O'Reilly. "I also wanted to let the world know
-just how great an impact the free software culture had already made.
-People were missing out on a large part of the free software tradition."
-
-Mozilla
-
-
-Netscape  Mozilla
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-   In putting together the invite list, however, O'Reilly made a
-decision that would have long-term political consequences. He decided
-to limit the list to west-coast developers such as Wall, Eric Allman,
-creator of sendmail, and Paul Vixie, creator of BIND. There were
-exceptions, of course: Pennsylvania-resident Raymond, who was already
-in town thanks to the Mozilla launch, earned an quick invite. So did
-Virginia-resident Guido van Rossum, creator of Python. "Frank Willison,
-my editor in chief and champion of Python within the company, invited
-him without first checking in with me," O'Reilly recalls. "I was happy
-to have him there, but when I started, it really was just a local
-gathering."
-
-Wall  sendmail
-Eric Allman  BIND  Paul Vixie
-
-Mozilla
-Python  Guido van Rossum
- Python  Frank Willison
-
-
-
-
-   For some observers, the unwillingness to include Stallman's name on
-the list qualified as a snub. "I decided not to go to the event because
-of it," says Perens, remembering the summit. Raymond, who did go, says
-he argued for Stallman's inclusion to no avail. The snub rumor gained
-additional strength from the fact that O'Reilly, the event's host, had
-feuded publicly with Stallman over the issue of software-manual
-copyrights. Prior to the meeting, Stallman had argued that free software
-manuals should be as freely copyable and modifiable as free software
-programs. O'Reilly, meanwhile, argued that a value-added market for
-nonfree books increased the utility of free software by making it more
-accessible to a wider community. The two had also disputed the title of
-the event, with Stallman insisting on "Free Software" over the less
-politically laden "Freeware."
-
-
- Perens
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-   Looking back, O'Reilly doesn't see the decision to leave Stallman's
-name off the invite list as a snub. "At that time, I had never met
-Richard in person, but in our email interactions, he'd been inflexible
-and unwilling to engage in dialogue. I wanted to make sure the GNU
-tradition was represented at the meeting, so I invited John Gilmore and
-Michael Tiemann, whom I knew personally, and whom I knew were
-passionate about the value of the GPL but seemed more willing to engage
-in a frank back-and-forth about the strengths and weaknesses of the
-various free software projects and traditions. Given all the later
-brouhaha, I do wish I'd invited Richard as well, but I certainly don't
-think that my failure to do so should be interpreted as a lack of
-respect for the GNU Project or for Richard personally."
-
-
-
- GNU
-John Gilmore  Michael Tiemann
-GPL
-
-
-
- GNU
-
-
-
-   Snub or no snub, both O'Reilly and Raymond say the term "open source"
-won over just enough summit-goers to qualify as a success. The attendees
-shared ideas and experiences and brainstormed on how to improve free
-software's image. Of key concern was how to point out the successes of
-free software, particularly in the realm of Internet infrastructure, as
-opposed to playing up the GNU/Linux challenge to Microsoft Windows. But
-like the earlier meeting at VA, the discussion soon turned to the
-problems associated with the term "free software." O'Reilly, the summit
-host, remembers a particularly insightful comment from Torvalds, a
-summit attendee.
-
-
-
-
-Microsoft Windows  GNU/Linux
-
- VA
-
-
-
-
-   "Linus had just moved to Silicon Valley at that point, and he
-explained how only recently that he had learned that the word `free'
-had two meanings-free as in `libre' and free as in `gratis'-in English."
-free
-
-
-
-   Michael Tiemann, founder of Cygnus, proposed an alternative to the
-troublesome "free software" term: sourceware. "Nobody got too excited
-about it," O'Reilly recalls. "That's when Eric threw out the term `open
-source.'"
-Cygnus  Michael Tiemann
-sourceware
-
-
-
-   Although the term appealed to some, support for a change in official
-terminology was far from unanimous. At the end of the one-day
-conference, attendees put the three terms--free software, open source,
-or sourceware--to a vote. According to O'Reilly, 9 out of the 15
-attendees voted for "open source." Although some still quibbled with
-the term, all attendees agreed to use it in future discussions with the
-press. "We wanted to go out with a solidarity message," O'Reilly says.
-
-
-
-
-159
-
-
-
-
-   The term didn't take long to enter the national lexicon. Shortly
-after the summit, O'Reilly shepherded summit attendees to a press
-conference attended by reporters from the `New York Times', the `Wall
-Street Journal', and other prominent publications. Within a few months,
-Torvalds' face was appearing on the cover of `Forbes' magazine, with
-the faces of Stallman, Perl creator Larry Wall, and Apache team leader
-Brian Behlendorf featured in the interior spread. Open source was open
-for business.
-
-
-
-
- Perl  Larry Wall  Apache
- Brian Behlendorf
-
-
-
-   For summit attendees such as Tiemann, the solidarity message was the
-most important thing. Although his company had achieved a fair amount of
-success selling free software tools and services, he sensed the
-difficulty other programmers and entrepreneurs faced.
-Tiemann
-
-
-
-
-   "There's no question that the use of the word free was confusing in a
-lot of situations," Tiemann says. "Open source positioned itself as
-being business friendly and business sensible. Free software positioned
-itself as morally righteous. For better or worse we figured it was more
-advantageous to align with the open source crowd."
-
- Tiemann
-
-
-
-
-   For Stallman, the response to the new "open source" term was slow in
-coming. Raymond says Stallman briefly considered adopting the term, only
-to discard it. "I know because I had direct personal conversations about
-it," Raymond says.
-
-
-
-
-
-   By the end of 1998, Stallman had formulated a position: open source,
-while helpful in communicating the technical advantages of free
-software, also encouraged speakers to soft-pedal the issue of software
-freedom. Given this drawback, Stallman would stick with the term free
-software.
-1998
-
-
-
-
-
-   Summing up his position at the 1999 LinuxWorld Convention and Expo,
-an event billed by Torvalds himself as a "coming out party" for the
-Linux community, Stallman implored his fellow hackers to resist the
-lure of easy compromise.
- Linux
-1999 LinuxWorld Convention
- Expo
-
-
-   "Because we've shown how much we can do, we don't have to be
-desperate to work with companies or compromise our goals," Stallman
-said during a panel discussion. "Let them offer and we'll accept. We
-don't have to change what we're doing to get them to help us. You can
-take a single step towards a goal, then another and then more and more
-and you'll actually reach your goal. Or, you can take a half measure
-that means you don't ever take another step and you'll never get there."
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-   Even before the LinuxWorld show, however, Stallman was showing an
-increased willingness to alienate his more conciliatory peers. A few
-months after the Freeware Summit, O'Reilly hosted its second annual Perl
-Conference. This time around, Stallman was in attendance. During a panel
-discussion lauding IBM's decision to employ the free software Apache web
-server in its commercial offerings, Stallman, taking advantage of an
-audience microphone, disrupted the proceedings with a tirade against
-panelist John Ousterhout, creator of the Tcl scripting language.
-Stallman branded Ousterhout a "parasite" on the free software community
-for marketing a proprietary version of Tcl via Ousterhout's startup
-company, Scriptics. "I don't think Scriptics is necessary for the
-continued existence of Tcl," Stallman said to hisses from the fellow
-audience members.(6)
-LinuxWorld
-
- Perl
- Apache
- IBM
-
-Tcl  John Ousterhout
-
-Ousterhout  Scriptics  Tcl
-Ousterhout
-Tcl
-Scriptics
-(6)
-
-   "It was a pretty ugly scene," recalls Prime Time Freeware's Rich
-Morin. "John's done some pretty respectable things: Tcl, Tk, Sprite.
-He's a real contributor."
- Prime Time Freeware  Rich Morin
-JohnTcl  Tk Sprite
-
-
-   Despite his sympathies for Stallman and Stallman's position, Morin
-felt empathy for those troubled by Stallman's discordant behavior.
-Morin
-
-
-   Stallman's Perl Conference outburst would momentarily chase off
-another potential sympathizer, Bruce Perens. In 1998, Eric Raymond
-proposed launching the Open Source Initiative, or OSI, an organization
-that would police the use of the term "open source" and provide a
-definition for companies interested in making their own programs.
-Raymond recruited Perens to draft the definition.(7)
- Perl
- Bruce Perens
-1998
-
-OSI
- Perens
-(7)
-
-   Perens would later resign from the OSI, expressing regret that the
-organization had set itself up in opposition to Stallman and the FSF.
-Still, looking back on the need for a free software definition outside
-the Free Software Foundation's auspices, Perens understands why other
-hackers might still feel the need for distance. "I really like and
-admire Richard," says Perens. "I do think Richard would do his job
-better if Richard had more balance. That includes going away from free
-software for a couple of months."
-Perens OSI  FSF
-OSI
-
-Perens
-
- Perens
-
-
-
-   Stallman's monomaniacal energies would do little to counteract the
-public-relations momentum of open source proponents. In August of 1998,
-when chip-maker Intel purchased a stake in GNU/Linux vendor Red Hat, an
-accompanying `New York Times' article described the company as the
-product of a movement "known alternatively as free software and open
-source."(8) Six months later, a John Markoff article on Apple Computer
-was proclaiming the company's adoption of the "open source" Apache
-server in the article headline.(9)
-
-19988
- Intel  GNU/Linux  Red Hat
-New York Times
-(8)
-Red Hat 6Apple Computer
-John Markoff  Apache
-(9)
-
-   Such momentum would coincide with the growing momentum of companies
-that actively embraced the "open source" term. By August of 1999, Red
-Hat, a company that now eagerly billed itself as "open source," was
-selling shares on Nasdaq. In December, VA Linux--formerly VA
-Research--was floating its own IPO to historical effect. Opening at $30
-per share, the company's stock price exploded past the $300 mark in
-initial trading only to settle back down to the $239 level.
-Shareholders lucky enough to get in at the bottom and stay until the
-end experienced a 698% increase in paper wealth, a Nasdaq record.
-
-19998
- Red Hat
-NASDAQ 12VA Linux
- VA Research IPO
-130 VA Linux
-300239
- VA
-NASDAQ 698%
-
-   Among those lucky shareholders was Eric Raymond, who, as a company
-board member since the Mozilla launch, had received 150,000 shares of
-VA Linux stock. Stunned by the realization that his essay contrasting
-the Stallman-Torvalds managerial styles had netted him $36 million in
-potential wealth, Raymond penned a follow-up essay. In it, Raymond mused
-on the relationship between the hacker ethic and monetary wealth:
- Mozilla
-VA Linux 150,000
-
-3600
-
-
-
-     Reporters often ask me these days if I think the open-source
-     community will be corrupted by the influx of big money. I tell
-     them what I believe, which is this: commercial demand for
-     programmers has been so intense for so long that anyone who can be
-     seriously distracted by money is already gone. Our community has
-     been self-selected for caring about other things-accomplishment,
-     pride, artistic passion, and each other.(10)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-     (10)
-
-   Whether or not such comments allayed suspicions that Raymond and
-other open source proponents had simply been in it for the money, they
-drove home the open source community's ultimate message: all you needed
-to sell the free software concept is a friendly face and a sensible
-message. Instead of fighting the marketplace head-on as Stallman had
-done, Raymond, Torvalds, and other new leaders of the hacker community
-had adopted a more relaxed approach-ignoring the marketplace in some
-areas, leveraging it in others. Instead of playing the role of
-high-school outcasts, they had played the game of celebrity, magnifying
-their power in the process.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-   "On his worst days Richard believes that Linus Torvalds and I
-conspired to hijack his revolution," Raymond says. "Richard's rejection
-of the term open source and his deliberate creation of an ideological
-fissure in my view comes from an odd mix of idealism and
-territoriality. There are people out there who think it's all Richard's
-personal ego. I don't believe that. It's more that he so personally
-associates himself with the free software idea that he sees any threat
-to that as a threat to himself."
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-   Ironically, the success of open source and open source advocates
-such as Raymond would not diminish Stallman's role as a leader. If
-anything, it gave Stallman new followers to convert. Still, the Raymond
-territoriality charge is a damning one. There are numerous instances of
-Stallman sticking to his guns more out of habit than out of principle:
-his initial dismissal of the Linux kernel, for example, and his current
-unwillingness as a political figure to venture outside the realm of
-software issues.
-
-
-
-
-
- Linux
-
-
-   Then again, as the recent debate over open source also shows, in
-instances when Stallman has stuck to his guns, he's usually found a way
-to gain ground because of it. "One of Stallman's primary character
-traits is the fact he doesn't budge," says Ian Murdock. "He'll wait up
-to a decade for people to come around to his point of view if that's
-what it takes."
-
-
-
- Ian Murdock
-
-
-
-   Murdock, for one, finds that unbudgeable nature both refreshing and
-valuable. Stallman may no longer be the solitary leader of the free
-software movement, but he is still the polestar of the free software
-community. "You always know that he's going to be consistent in his
-views," Murdock says. "Most people aren't like that. Whether you agree
-with him or not, you really have to respect that."
-Murdock
-
-
-
- Murdock
-
-
+11 Open Source
+11
+**************
+
+   In November, 1995, Peter Salus, a member of the Free Software
+Foundation and author of the 1994 book, `A Quarter Century of Unix',
+issued a call for papers to members of the GNU Project's
+"system-discuss" mailing list. Salus, the conference's scheduled
+chairman, wanted to tip off fellow hackers about the upcoming
+Conference on Freely Redistributable Software in Cambridge,
+Massachusetts. Slated for February, 1996 and sponsored by the Free
+Software Foundation, the event promised to be the first engineering
+conference solely dedicated to free software and, in a show of unity
+with other free software programmers, welcomed papers on "any aspect of
+GNU, Linux, NetBSD, 386BSD, FreeBSD, Perl, Tcl/tk, and other tools for
+which the code is accessible and redistributable." Salus wrote:
+1995111994
+UNIX1/4
+GNU
+
+
+
+19962
+
+
+GNU
+GNULinuxNetBSD386BSDFreeBSDPerlTcl/tk
+
+
+
+     Over the past 15 years, free and low-cost software has become
+     ubiquitous. This conference will bring together implementers of
+     several different types of freely redistributable software and
+     publishers of such software (on various media). There will be
+     tutorials and refereed papers, as well as keynotes by Linus
+     Torvalds and Richard Stallman.(1)
+     15
+
+
+
+
+
+     (1)
+
+   One of the first people to receive Salus' email was conference
+committee member Eric S. Raymond. Although not the leader of a project
+or company like the various other members of the list, Raymond had
+built a tidy reputation within the hacker community as a major
+contributor to GNU Emacs and as editor of `The New Hacker Dictionary',
+a book version of the hacking community's decade-old Jargon File.
+
+S
+
+ GNU Emacs
+10 Jargon File  The New Hacker Dictionary
+
+
+   For Raymond, the 1996 conference was a welcome event. Active in the
+GNU Project during the 1980s, Raymond had distanced himself from the
+project in 1992, citing, like many others before him, Stallman's
+"micro-management" style. "Richard kicked up a fuss about my making
+unauthorized modifications when I was cleaning up the Emacs LISP
+libraries," Raymond recalls. "It frustrated me so much that I decided I
+didn't want to work with him anymore."
+1996
+1980 GNU
+
+1992 GNU
+ Emacs LISP
+
+
+
+
+   Despite the falling out, Raymond remained active in the free software
+community. So much so that when Salus suggested a conference pairing
+Stallman and Torvalds as keynote speakers, Raymond eagerly seconded the
+idea. With Stallman representing the older, wiser contingent of ITS/Unix
+hackers and Torvalds representing the younger, more energetic crop of
+Linux hackers, the pairing indicated a symbolic show of unity that could
+only be beneficial, especially to ambitious younger (i.e., below 40)
+hackers such as Raymond. "I sort of had a foot in both camps," Raymond
+says.
+
+
+
+ ITS/Unix
+ Linux
+
+40
+
+
+
+   By the time of the conference, the tension between those two camps
+had become palpable. Both groups had one thing in common, though: the
+conference was their first chance to meet the Finnish _wunderkind_ in
+the flesh. Surprisingly, Torvalds proved himself to be a charming,
+affable speaker. Possessing only a slight Swedish accent, Torvalds
+surprised audience members with his quick, self-effacing wit.(2) Even
+more surprising, says Raymond, was Torvalds' equal willingness to take
+potshots at other prominent hackers, including the most prominent
+hacker of all, Richard Stallman. By the end of the conference,
+Torvalds' half-hacker, half-slacker manner was winning over older and
+younger conference-goers alike.
+
+
+
+
+
+(2)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+   "It was a pivotal moment," recalls Raymond. "Before 1996, Richard was
+the only credible claimant to being the ideological leader of the entire
+culture. People who dissented didn't do so in public. The person who
+broke that taboo was Torvalds."
+1996
+
+
+
+
+   The ultimate breach of taboo would come near the end of the show.
+During a discussion on the growing market dominance of Microsoft
+Windows or some similar topic, Torvalds admitted to being a fan of
+Microsoft's PowerPoint slideshow software program. From the perspective
+of old-line software purists, it was like a Mormon bragging in church
+about his fondness of whiskey. From the perspective of Torvalds and his
+growing band of followers, it was simply common sense. Why shun worthy
+proprietary software programs just to make a point? Being a hacker
+wasn't about suffering, it was about getting the job done.
+
+Microsoft Windows
+ Microsoft  PowerPoint
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+   "That was a pretty shocking thing to say," Raymond remembers. "Then
+again, he was able to do that, because by 1995 and 1996, he was rapidly
+acquiring clout."
+
+19951996
+
+
+   Stallman, for his part, doesn't remember any tension at the 1996
+conference, but he does remember later feeling the sting of Torvalds'
+celebrated cheekiness. "There was a thing in the Linux documentation
+which says print out the GNU coding standards and then tear them up,"
+says Stallman, recalling one example. "OK, so he disagrees with some of
+our conventions. That's fine, but he picked a singularly nasty way of
+saying so. He could have just said `Here's the way I think you should
+indent your code.' Fine. There should be no hostility there."
+1996
+
+Linux GNU
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+   For Raymond, the warm reception other hackers gave to Torvalds'
+comments merely confirmed his suspicions. The dividing line separating
+Linux developers from GNU/Linux developers was largely generational.
+Many Linux hackers, like Torvalds, had grown up in a world of
+proprietary software. Unless a program was clearly inferior, most saw
+little reason to rail against a program on licensing issues alone.
+Somewhere in the universe of free software systems lurked a program
+that hackers might someday turn into a free software alternative to
+PowerPoint. Until then, why begrudge Microsoft the initiative of
+developing the program and reserving the rights to it?
+
+Linux  GNU/Linux
+
+ Linux
+
+
+ PowerPoint
+
+ Microsoft
+
+   As a former GNU Project member, Raymond sensed an added dynamic to
+the tension between Stallman and Torvalds. In the decade since
+launching the GNU Project, Stallman had built up a fearsome reputation
+as a programmer. He had also built up a reputation for intransigence
+both in terms of software design and people management. Shortly before
+the 1996 conference, the Free Software Foundation would experience a
+full-scale staff defection, blamed in large part on Stallman. Brian
+Youmans, a current FSF staffer hired by Salus in the wake of the
+resignations, recalls the scene: "At one point, Peter [Salus] was the
+only staff member working in the office."
+ GNU
+
+GNU 10
+
+
+1996
+
+ FSF  Brian Youmans
+
+
+
+   For Raymond, the defection merely confirmed a growing suspicion:
+recent delays such as the HURD and recent troubles such as the
+Lucid-Emacs schism reflected problems normally associated with software
+project management, not software code development. Shortly after the
+Freely Redistributable Software Conference, Raymond began working on
+his own pet software project, a popmail utility called "fetchmail."
+Taking a cue from Torvalds, Raymond issued his program with a tacked-on
+promise to update the source code as early and as often as possible.
+When users began sending in bug reports and feature suggestions,
+Raymond, at first anticipating a tangled mess, found the resulting
+software surprisingly sturdy. Analyzing the success of the Torvalds
+approach, Raymond issued a quick analysis: using the Internet as his
+"petri dish" and the harsh scrutiny of the hacker community as a form
+of natural selection, Torvalds had created an evolutionary model free
+of central planning.
+FSF  HURD
+ Lucid-Emacs
+
+Freely Redistributable Software Conference
+
+fetchmail
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+   What's more, Raymond decided, Torvalds had found a way around Brooks'
+Law. First articulated by Fred P. Brooks, manager of IBM's OS/360
+project and author of the 1975 book, `The Mythical Man-Month', Brooks'
+Law held that adding developers to a project only resulted in further
+project delays. Believing as most hackers that software, like soup,
+benefits from a limited number of cooks, Raymond sensed something
+revolutionary at work. In inviting more and more cooks into the kitchen,
+Torvalds had actually found away to make the resulting software
+_better_.(3)
+
+IBM  OS/360
+1975
+P
+
+
+
+
+
+
+(3)
+
+   Raymond put his observations on paper. He crafted them into a speech,
+which he promptly delivered before a group of friends and neighbors in
+Chester County, Pennsylvania. Dubbed "The Cathedral and the Bazaar," the
+speech contrasted the management styles of the GNU Project with the
+management style of Torvalds and the kernel hackers. Raymond says the
+response was enthusiastic, but not nearly as enthusiastic as the one he
+received during the 1997 Linux Kongress, a gathering of Linux users in
+Germany the next spring.
+
+
+
+GNU
+
+ Linux 1997
+Linux Kongress
+
+   "At the Kongress, they gave me a standing ovation at the end of the
+speech," Raymond recalls. "I took that as significant for two reasons.
+For one thing, it meant they were excited by what they were hearing.
+For another thing, it meant they were excited even after hearing the
+speech delivered through a language barrier."
+Linux Kongress
+
+
+
+
+   Eventually, Raymond would convert the speech into a paper, also
+titled "The Cathedral and the Bazaar." The paper drew its name from
+Raymond's central analogy. GNU programs were "cathedrals," impressive,
+centrally planned monuments to the hacker ethic, built to stand the
+test of time. Linux, on the other hand, was more like "a great babbling
+bazaar," a software program developed through the loose decentralizing
+dynamics of the Internet.
+
+
+GNU
+
+ Linux
+
+
+
+   Implicit within each analogy was a comparison of Stallman and
+Torvalds. Where Stallman served as the classic model of the cathedral
+architect--i.e., a programming "wizard" who could disappear for 18
+months and return with something like the GNU C Compiler--Torvalds was
+more like a genial dinner-party host. In letting others lead the Linux
+design discussion and stepping in only when the entire table needed a
+referee, Torvalds had created a development model very much reflective
+of his own laid-back personality. From the Torvalds' perspective, the
+most important managerial task was not imposing control but keeping the
+ideas flowing.
+
+
+18GNU C
+
+
+ Linux
+
+
+
+
+
+   Summarized Raymond, "I think Linus's cleverest and most consequential
+hack was not the construction of the Linux kernel itself, but rather his
+invention of the Linux development model."(4)
+
+Linux
+ Linux (4)
+
+   In summarizing the secrets of Torvalds' managerial success, Raymond
+himself had pulled off a coup. One of the audience members at the Linux
+Kongress was Tim O'Reilly, publisher of O'Reilly & Associates, a company
+specializing in software manuals and software-related books (and the
+publisher of this book). After hearing Raymond's Kongress speech,
+O'Reilly promptly invited Raymond to deliver it again at the company's
+inaugural Perl Conference later that year in Monterey, California.
+
+Linux Kongress
+
+ O'Reilly & Associates
+
+Linux Kongress
+ O'Reilly & Associates
+ Perl
+
+
+   Although the conference was supposed to focus on Perl, a scripting
+language created by Unix hacker Larry Wall, O'Reilly assured Raymond
+that the conference would address other free software technologies.
+Given the growing commercial interest in Linux and Apache, a popular
+free software web server, O'Reilly hoped to use the event to publicize
+the role of free software in creating the entire infrastructure of the
+Internet. From web-friendly languages such as Perl and Python to
+back-room programs such as BIND (the Berkeley Internet Naming Daemon),
+a software tool that lets users replace arcane IP numbers with the
+easy-to-remember domain-name addresses (e.g., amazon.com), and
+sendmail, the most popular mail program on the Internet, free software
+had become an emergent phenomenon. Like a colony of ants creating a
+beautiful nest one grain of sand at a time, the only thing missing was
+the communal self-awareness. O'Reilly saw Raymond's speech as a good
+way to inspire that self-awareness, to drive home the point that free
+software development didn't start and end with the GNU Project.
+Programming languages, such as Perl and Python, and Internet software,
+such as BIND, sendmail, and Apache, demonstrated that free software was
+already ubiquitous and influential. He also assured Raymond an even
+warmer reception than the one at Linux Kongress.
+Unix  Larry Wall
+ Perl
+Perl
+Linux
+Apache
+
+Perl  Python
+ IP
+amazon.com BINDthe Berkeley
+Internet Naming Daemon
+sendmail
+
+
+
+ GNU
+Perl  Python
+BINDsendmail Apache
+
+
+Linux Kongress
+
+   O'Reilly was right. "This time, I got the standing ovation before the
+speech," says Raymond, laughing.
+
+
+
+   As predicted, the audience was stocked not only with hackers, but
+with other people interested in the growing power of the free software
+movement. One contingent included a group from Netscape, the Mountain
+View, California startup then nearing the end game of its three-year
+battle with Microsoft for control of the web-browser market.
+
+
+
+Microsoft  Netscape
+
+
+   Intrigued by Raymond's speech and anxious to win back lost market
+share, Netscape executives took the message back to corporate
+headquarters. A few months later, in January, 1998, the company
+announced its plan to publish the source code of its flagship Navigator
+web browser in the hopes of enlisting hacker support in future
+development.
+
+ Netscape
+19981Netscape
+ Navigator
+
+
+   When Netscape CEO Jim Barksdale cited Raymond's "Cathedral and the
+Bazaar" essay as a major influence upon the company's decision, the
+company instantly elevated Raymond to the level of hacker celebrity.
+Determined not to squander the opportunity, Raymond traveled west to
+deliver interviews, advise Netscape executives, and take part in the
+eventual party celebrating the publication of Netscape Navigator's
+source code. The code name for Navigator's source code was "Mozilla": a
+reference both to the program's gargantuan size--30 million lines of
+code--and to its heritage. Developed as a proprietary offshoot of
+Mosaic, the web browser created by Marc Andreessen at the University of
+Illinois, Mozilla was proof, yet again, that when it came to building
+new programs, most programmers preferred to borrow on older, modifiable
+programs.
+Netscape  CEO  Jim Barksdale Netscape
+
+
+ Netscape
+ Netscape Navigator
+Navigator
+Mozilla
+3000
+
+Mosaic  Mozilla
+
+
+
+   While in California, Raymond also managed to squeeze in a visit to VA
+Research, a Santa Clara-based company selling workstations with the
+GNU/Linux operating system preinstalled. Convened by Raymond, the
+meeting was small. The invite list included VA founder Larry Augustin, a
+few VA employees, and Christine Peterson, president of the Foresight
+Institute, a Silicon Valley think tank specializing in nanotechnology.
+ GNU/Linux
+
+ VA Research
+
+VA  Larry AugustinVA
+ Foresight Institute  Christine Peterson
+
+
+   "The meeting's agenda boiled down to one item: how to take advantage
+of Netscape's decision so that other companies might follow suit?"
+Raymond doesn't recall the conversation that took place, but he does
+remember the first complaint addressed. Despite the best efforts of
+Stallman and other hackers to remind people that the word "free" in
+free software stood for freedom and not price, the message still wasn't
+getting through. Most business executives, upon hearing the term for
+the first time, interpreted the word as synonymous with "zero cost,"
+tuning out any follow up messages in short order. Until hackers found a
+way to get past this cognitive dissonance, the free software movement
+faced an uphill climb, even after Netscape.
+
+Netscape
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ Netscape
+
+
+   Peterson, whose organization had taken an active interest in
+advancing the free software cause, offered an alternative: open source.
+
+ Peterson
+
+   Looking back, Peterson says she came up with the open source term
+while discussing Netscape's decision with a friend in the public
+relations industry. She doesn't remember where she came upon the term
+or if she borrowed it from another field, but she does remember her
+friend disliking the term.(5)
+ Netscape
+ Peterson
+
+(5)
+
+   At the meeting, Peterson says, the response was dramatically
+different. "I was hesitant about suggesting it," Peterson recalls. "I
+had no standing with the group, so started using it casually, not
+highlighting it as a new term." To Peterson's surprise, the term caught
+on. By the end of the meeting, most of the attendees, including Raymond,
+seemed pleased by it.
+Peterson
+
+ Peterson
+
+Peterson
+
+
+
+   Raymond says he didn't publicly use the term "open source" as a
+substitute for free software until a day or two after the Mozilla launch
+party, when O'Reilly had scheduled a meeting to talk about free
+software. Calling his meeting "the Freeware Summit," O'Reilly says he
+wanted to direct media and community attention to the other deserving
+projects that had also encouraged Netscape to release Mozilla. "All
+these guys had so much in common, and I was surprised they didn't all
+know each other," says O'Reilly. "I also wanted to let the world know
+just how great an impact the free software culture had already made.
+People were missing out on a large part of the free software tradition."
+
+Mozilla
+
+
+Netscape  Mozilla
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+   In putting together the invite list, however, O'Reilly made a
+decision that would have long-term political consequences. He decided
+to limit the list to west-coast developers such as Wall, Eric Allman,
+creator of sendmail, and Paul Vixie, creator of BIND. There were
+exceptions, of course: Pennsylvania-resident Raymond, who was already
+in town thanks to the Mozilla launch, earned an quick invite. So did
+Virginia-resident Guido van Rossum, creator of Python. "Frank Willison,
+my editor in chief and champion of Python within the company, invited
+him without first checking in with me," O'Reilly recalls. "I was happy
+to have him there, but when I started, it really was just a local
+gathering."
+
+Wall  sendmail
+Eric Allman  BIND  Paul Vixie
+
+Mozilla
+Python  Guido van Rossum
+ Python  Frank Willison
+
+
+
+
+   For some observers, the unwillingness to include Stallman's name on
+the list qualified as a snub. "I decided not to go to the event because
+of it," says Perens, remembering the summit. Raymond, who did go, says
+he argued for Stallman's inclusion to no avail. The snub rumor gained
+additional strength from the fact that O'Reilly, the event's host, had
+feuded publicly with Stallman over the issue of software-manual
+copyrights. Prior to the meeting, Stallman had argued that free software
+manuals should be as freely copyable and modifiable as free software
+programs. O'Reilly, meanwhile, argued that a value-added market for
+nonfree books increased the utility of free software by making it more
+accessible to a wider community. The two had also disputed the title of
+the event, with Stallman insisting on "Free Software" over the less
+politically laden "Freeware."
+
+
+ Perens
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+   Looking back, O'Reilly doesn't see the decision to leave Stallman's
+name off the invite list as a snub. "At that time, I had never met
+Richard in person, but in our email interactions, he'd been inflexible
+and unwilling to engage in dialogue. I wanted to make sure the GNU
+tradition was represented at the meeting, so I invited John Gilmore and
+Michael Tiemann, whom I knew personally, and whom I knew were
+passionate about the value of the GPL but seemed more willing to engage
+in a frank back-and-forth about the strengths and weaknesses of the
+various free software projects and traditions. Given all the later
+brouhaha, I do wish I'd invited Richard as well, but I certainly don't
+think that my failure to do so should be interpreted as a lack of
+respect for the GNU Project or for Richard personally."
+
+
+
+ GNU
+John Gilmore  Michael Tiemann
+GPL
+
+
+
+ GNU
+
+
+
+   Snub or no snub, both O'Reilly and Raymond say the term "open source"
+won over just enough summit-goers to qualify as a success. The attendees
+shared ideas and experiences and brainstormed on how to improve free
+software's image. Of key concern was how to point out the successes of
+free software, particularly in the realm of Internet infrastructure, as
+opposed to playing up the GNU/Linux challenge to Microsoft Windows. But
+like the earlier meeting at VA, the discussion soon turned to the
+problems associated with the term "free software." O'Reilly, the summit
+host, remembers a particularly insightful comment from Torvalds, a
+summit attendee.
+
+
+
+
+Microsoft Windows  GNU/Linux
+
+ VA
+
+
+
+
+   "Linus had just moved to Silicon Valley at that point, and he
+explained how only recently that he had learned that the word `free'
+had two meanings-free as in `libre' and free as in `gratis'-in English."
+free
+
+
+
+   Michael Tiemann, founder of Cygnus, proposed an alternative to the
+troublesome "free software" term: sourceware. "Nobody got too excited
+about it," O'Reilly recalls. "That's when Eric threw out the term `open
+source.'"
+Cygnus  Michael Tiemann
+sourceware
+
+
+
+   Although the term appealed to some, support for a change in official
+terminology was far from unanimous. At the end of the one-day
+conference, attendees put the three terms--free software, open source,
+or sourceware--to a vote. According to O'Reilly, 9 out of the 15
+attendees voted for "open source." Although some still quibbled with
+the term, all attendees agreed to use it in future discussions with the
+press. "We wanted to go out with a solidarity message," O'Reilly says.
+
+
+
+
+159
+
+
+
+
+   The term didn't take long to enter the national lexicon. Shortly
+after the summit, O'Reilly shepherded summit attendees to a press
+conference attended by reporters from the `New York Times', the `Wall
+Street Journal', and other prominent publications. Within a few months,
+Torvalds' face was appearing on the cover of `Forbes' magazine, with
+the faces of Stallman, Perl creator Larry Wall, and Apache team leader
+Brian Behlendorf featured in the interior spread. Open source was open
+for business.
+
+
+
+
+ Perl  Larry Wall  Apache
+ Brian Behlendorf
+
+
+
+   For summit attendees such as Tiemann, the solidarity message was the
+most important thing. Although his company had achieved a fair amount of
+success selling free software tools and services, he sensed the
+difficulty other programmers and entrepreneurs faced.
+Tiemann
+
+
+
+
+   "There's no question that the use of the word free was confusing in a
+lot of situations," Tiemann says. "Open source positioned itself as
+being business friendly and business sensible. Free software positioned
+itself as morally righteous. For better or worse we figured it was more
+advantageous to align with the open source crowd."
+
+ Tiemann
+
+
+
+
+   For Stallman, the response to the new "open source" term was slow in
+coming. Raymond says Stallman briefly considered adopting the term, only
+to discard it. "I know because I had direct personal conversations about
+it," Raymond says.
+
+
+
+
+
+   By the end of 1998, Stallman had formulated a position: open source,
+while helpful in communicating the technical advantages of free
+software, also encouraged speakers to soft-pedal the issue of software
+freedom. Given this drawback, Stallman would stick with the term free
+software.
+1998
+
+
+
+
+
+   Summing up his position at the 1999 LinuxWorld Convention and Expo,
+an event billed by Torvalds himself as a "coming out party" for the
+Linux community, Stallman implored his fellow hackers to resist the
+lure of easy compromise.
+ Linux
+1999 LinuxWorld Convention
+ Expo
+
+
+   "Because we've shown how much we can do, we don't have to be
+desperate to work with companies or compromise our goals," Stallman
+said during a panel discussion. "Let them offer and we'll accept. We
+don't have to change what we're doing to get them to help us. You can
+take a single step towards a goal, then another and then more and more
+and you'll actually reach your goal. Or, you can take a half measure
+that means you don't ever take another step and you'll never get there."
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+   Even before the LinuxWorld show, however, Stallman was showing an
+increased willingness to alienate his more conciliatory peers. A few
+months after the Freeware Summit, O'Reilly hosted its second annual Perl
+Conference. This time around, Stallman was in attendance. During a panel
+discussion lauding IBM's decision to employ the free software Apache web
+server in its commercial offerings, Stallman, taking advantage of an
+audience microphone, disrupted the proceedings with a tirade against
+panelist John Ousterhout, creator of the Tcl scripting language.
+Stallman branded Ousterhout a "parasite" on the free software community
+for marketing a proprietary version of Tcl via Ousterhout's startup
+company, Scriptics. "I don't think Scriptics is necessary for the
+continued existence of Tcl," Stallman said to hisses from the fellow
+audience members.(6)
+LinuxWorld
+
+ Perl
+ Apache
+ IBM
+
+Tcl  John Ousterhout
+
+Ousterhout  Scriptics  Tcl
+Ousterhout
+Tcl
+Scriptics
+(6)
+
+   "It was a pretty ugly scene," recalls Prime Time Freeware's Rich
+Morin. "John's done some pretty respectable things: Tcl, Tk, Sprite.
+He's a real contributor."
+ Prime Time Freeware  Rich Morin
+JohnTcl  Tk Sprite
+
+
+   Despite his sympathies for Stallman and Stallman's position, Morin
+felt empathy for those troubled by Stallman's discordant behavior.
+Morin
+
+
+   Stallman's Perl Conference outburst would momentarily chase off
+another potential sympathizer, Bruce Perens. In 1998, Eric Raymond
+proposed launching the Open Source Initiative, or OSI, an organization
+that would police the use of the term "open source" and provide a
+definition for companies interested in making their own programs.
+Raymond recruited Perens to draft the definition.(7)
+ Perl
+ Bruce Perens
+1998
+
+OSI
+ Perens
+(7)
+
+   Perens would later resign from the OSI, expressing regret that the
+organization had set itself up in opposition to Stallman and the FSF.
+Still, looking back on the need for a free software definition outside
+the Free Software Foundation's auspices, Perens understands why other
+hackers might still feel the need for distance. "I really like and
+admire Richard," says Perens. "I do think Richard would do his job
+better if Richard had more balance. That includes going away from free
+software for a couple of months."
+Perens OSI  FSF
+OSI
+
+Perens
+
+ Perens
+
+
+
+   Stallman's monomaniacal energies would do little to counteract the
+public-relations momentum of open source proponents. In August of 1998,
+when chip-maker Intel purchased a stake in GNU/Linux vendor Red Hat, an
+accompanying `New York Times' article described the company as the
+product of a movement "known alternatively as free software and open
+source."(8) Six months later, a John Markoff article on Apple Computer
+was proclaiming the company's adoption of the "open source" Apache
+server in the article headline.(9)
+
+19988
+ Intel  GNU/Linux  Red Hat
+New York Times
+(8)
+Red Hat 6Apple Computer
+John Markoff  Apache
+(9)
+
+   Such momentum would coincide with the growing momentum of companies
+that actively embraced the "open source" term. By August of 1999, Red
+Hat, a company that now eagerly billed itself as "open source," was
+selling shares on Nasdaq. In December, VA Linux--formerly VA
+Research--was floating its own IPO to historical effect. Opening at $30
+per share, the company's stock price exploded past the $300 mark in
+initial trading only to settle back down to the $239 level.
+Shareholders lucky enough to get in at the bottom and stay until the
+end experienced a 698% increase in paper wealth, a Nasdaq record.
+
+19998
+ Red Hat
+NASDAQ 12VA Linux
+ VA Research IPO
+130 VA Linux
+300239
+ VA
+NASDAQ 698%
+
+   Among those lucky shareholders was Eric Raymond, who, as a company
+board member since the Mozilla launch, had received 150,000 shares of
+VA Linux stock. Stunned by the realization that his essay contrasting
+the Stallman-Torvalds managerial styles had netted him $36 million in
+potential wealth, Raymond penned a follow-up essay. In it, Raymond mused
+on the relationship between the hacker ethic and monetary wealth:
+ Mozilla
+VA Linux 150,000
+
+3600
+
+
+
+     Reporters often ask me these days if I think the open-source
+     community will be corrupted by the influx of big money. I tell
+     them what I believe, which is this: commercial demand for
+     programmers has been so intense for so long that anyone who can be
+     seriously distracted by money is already gone. Our community has
+     been self-selected for caring about other things-accomplishment,
+     pride, artistic passion, and each other.(10)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+     (10)
+
+   Whether or not such comments allayed suspicions that Raymond and
+other open source proponents had simply been in it for the money, they
+drove home the open source community's ultimate message: all you needed
+to sell the free software concept is a friendly face and a sensible
+message. Instead of fighting the marketplace head-on as Stallman had
+done, Raymond, Torvalds, and other new leaders of the hacker community
+had adopted a more relaxed approach-ignoring the marketplace in some
+areas, leveraging it in others. Instead of playing the role of
+high-school outcasts, they had played the game of celebrity, magnifying
+their power in the process.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+   "On his worst days Richard believes that Linus Torvalds and I
+conspired to hijack his revolution," Raymond says. "Richard's rejection
+of the term open source and his deliberate creation of an ideological
+fissure in my view comes from an odd mix of idealism and
+territoriality. There are people out there who think it's all Richard's
+personal ego. I don't believe that. It's more that he so personally
+associates himself with the free software idea that he sees any threat
+to that as a threat to himself."
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+   Ironically, the success of open source and open source advocates
+such as Raymond would not diminish Stallman's role as a leader. If
+anything, it gave Stallman new followers to convert. Still, the Raymond
+territoriality charge is a damning one. There are numerous instances of
+Stallman sticking to his guns more out of habit than out of principle:
+his initial dismissal of the Linux kernel, for example, and his current
+unwillingness as a political figure to venture outside the realm of
+software issues.
+
+
+
+
+
+ Linux
+
+
+   Then again, as the recent debate over open source also shows, in
+instances when Stallman has stuck to his guns, he's usually found a way
+to gain ground because of it. "One of Stallman's primary character
+traits is the fact he doesn't budge," says Ian Murdock. "He'll wait up
+to a decade for people to come around to his point of view if that's
+what it takes."
+
+
+
+ Ian Murdock
+
+
+
+   Murdock, for one, finds that unbudgeable nature both refreshing and
+valuable. Stallman may no longer be the solitary leader of the free
+software movement, but he is still the polestar of the free software
+community. "You always know that he's going to be consistent in his
+views," Murdock says. "Most people aren't like that. Whether you agree
+with him or not, you really have to respect that."
+Murdock
+
+
+
+ Murdock
+
+