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--- /tmp/DOCMAN242mbDs 2023-02-08 18:28:01.838069658 +0900 +++ /tmp/DOCMAN2aLP8TI 2023-02-08 18:28:01.838069658 +0900 @@ -1,19 +1,6 @@ -11 Open Source 11 ************** - In November, 1995, Peter Salus, a member of the Free Software -Foundation and author of the 1994 book, `A Quarter Century of Unix', -issued a call for papers to members of the GNU Project's -"system-discuss" mailing list. Salus, the conference's scheduled -chairman, wanted to tip off fellow hackers about the upcoming -Conference on Freely Redistributable Software in Cambridge, -Massachusetts. Slated for February, 1996 and sponsored by the Free -Software Foundation, the event promised to be the first engineering -conference solely dedicated to free software and, in a show of unity -with other free software programmers, welcomed papers on "any aspect of -GNU, Linux, NetBSD, 386BSD, FreeBSD, Perl, Tcl/tk, and other tools for -which the code is accessible and redistributable." Salus wrote: 1995111994 UNIX1/4 GNU @@ -35,19 +22,12 @@ tutorials and refereed papers, as well as keynotes by Linus Torvalds and Richard Stallman.(1) 15 - - - - - - (1) - - One of the first people to receive Salus' email was conference -committee member Eric S. Raymond. Although not the leader of a project -or company like the various other members of the list, Raymond had -built a tidy reputation within the hacker community as a major -contributor to GNU Emacs and as editor of `The New Hacker Dictionary', -a book version of the hacking community's decade-old Jargon File. + + + + + (1) + S @@ -55,13 +35,6 @@ 10 Jargon File The New Hacker Dictionary - For Raymond, the 1996 conference was a welcome event. Active in the -GNU Project during the 1980s, Raymond had distanced himself from the -project in 1992, citing, like many others before him, Stallman's -"micro-management" style. "Richard kicked up a fuss about my making -unauthorized modifications when I was cleaning up the Emacs LISP -libraries," Raymond recalls. "It frustrated me so much that I decided I -didn't want to work with him anymore." 1996 1980 GNU @@ -71,18 +44,9 @@ - Despite the falling out, Raymond remained active in the free software -community. So much so that when Salus suggested a conference pairing -Stallman and Torvalds as keynote speakers, Raymond eagerly seconded the -idea. With Stallman representing the older, wiser contingent of ITS/Unix -hackers and Torvalds representing the younger, more energetic crop of -Linux hackers, the pairing indicated a symbolic show of unity that could -only be beneficial, especially to ambitious younger (i.e., below 40) -hackers such as Raymond. "I sort of had a foot in both camps," Raymond -says. - - - + + + ITS/Unix Linux @@ -90,17 +54,6 @@ - By the time of the conference, the tension between those two camps -had become palpable. Both groups had one thing in common, though: the -conference was their first chance to meet the Finnish _wunderkind_ in -the flesh. Surprisingly, Torvalds proved himself to be a charming, -affable speaker. Possessing only a slight Swedish accent, Torvalds -surprised audience members with his quick, self-effacing wit.(2) Even -more surprising, says Raymond, was Torvalds' equal willingness to take -potshots at other prominent hackers, including the most prominent -hacker of all, Richard Stallman. By the end of the conference, -Torvalds' half-hacker, half-slacker manner was winning over older and -younger conference-goers alike. @@ -113,24 +66,11 @@ - "It was a pivotal moment," recalls Raymond. "Before 1996, Richard was -the only credible claimant to being the ideological leader of the entire -culture. People who dissented didn't do so in public. The person who -broke that taboo was Torvalds." 1996 - The ultimate breach of taboo would come near the end of the show. -During a discussion on the growing market dominance of Microsoft -Windows or some similar topic, Torvalds admitted to being a fan of -Microsoft's PowerPoint slideshow software program. From the perspective -of old-line software purists, it was like a Mormon bragging in church -about his fondness of whiskey. From the perspective of Torvalds and his -growing band of followers, it was simply common sense. Why shun worthy -proprietary software programs just to make a point? Being a hacker -wasn't about suffering, it was about getting the job done. Microsoft Windows Microsoft PowerPoint @@ -142,21 +82,10 @@ - "That was a pretty shocking thing to say," Raymond remembers. "Then -again, he was able to do that, because by 1995 and 1996, he was rapidly -acquiring clout." 19951996 - Stallman, for his part, doesn't remember any tension at the 1996 -conference, but he does remember later feeling the sting of Torvalds' -celebrated cheekiness. "There was a thing in the Linux documentation -which says print out the GNU coding standards and then tear them up," -says Stallman, recalling one example. "OK, so he disagrees with some of -our conventions. That's fine, but he picked a singularly nasty way of -saying so. He could have just said `Here's the way I think you should -indent your code.' Fine. There should be no hostility there." 1996 Linux GNU @@ -167,16 +96,6 @@ - For Raymond, the warm reception other hackers gave to Torvalds' -comments merely confirmed his suspicions. The dividing line separating -Linux developers from GNU/Linux developers was largely generational. -Many Linux hackers, like Torvalds, had grown up in a world of -proprietary software. Unless a program was clearly inferior, most saw -little reason to rail against a program on licensing issues alone. -Somewhere in the universe of free software systems lurked a program -that hackers might someday turn into a free software alternative to -PowerPoint. Until then, why begrudge Microsoft the initiative of -developing the program and reserving the rights to it? Linux GNU/Linux @@ -195,8 +114,8 @@ the 1996 conference, the Free Software Foundation would experience a full-scale staff defection, blamed in large part on Stallman. Brian Youmans, a current FSF staffer hired by Salus in the wake of the -resignations, recalls the scene: "At one point, Peter [Salus] was the -only staff member working in the office." +resignations, recalls the scene: "At one point, Peter [Salus] was the +only staff member working in the office." GNU GNU 10 @@ -204,31 +123,16 @@ 1996 - FSF Brian Youmans - - - - For Raymond, the defection merely confirmed a growing suspicion: -recent delays such as the HURD and recent troubles such as the -Lucid-Emacs schism reflected problems normally associated with software -project management, not software code development. Shortly after the -Freely Redistributable Software Conference, Raymond began working on -his own pet software project, a popmail utility called "fetchmail." -Taking a cue from Torvalds, Raymond issued his program with a tacked-on -promise to update the source code as early and as often as possible. -When users began sending in bug reports and feature suggestions, -Raymond, at first anticipating a tangled mess, found the resulting -software surprisingly sturdy. Analyzing the success of the Torvalds -approach, Raymond issued a quick analysis: using the Internet as his -"petri dish" and the harsh scrutiny of the hacker community as a form -of natural selection, Torvalds had created an evolutionary model free -of central planning. -FSF HURD - Lucid-Emacs - -Freely Redistributable Software Conference - -fetchmail + FSF +Brian Youmans + + +FSF + HURD Lucid-Emacs + +Freely Redistributable Software +Conference +fetchmail @@ -238,15 +142,6 @@ - What's more, Raymond decided, Torvalds had found a way around Brooks' -Law. First articulated by Fred P. Brooks, manager of IBM's OS/360 -project and author of the 1975 book, `The Mythical Man-Month', Brooks' -Law held that adding developers to a project only resulted in further -project delays. Believing as most hackers that software, like soup, -benefits from a limited number of cooks, Raymond sensed something -revolutionary at work. In inviting more and more cooks into the kitchen, -Torvalds had actually found away to make the resulting software -_better_.(3) IBM OS/360 1975 @@ -259,14 +154,6 @@ (3) - Raymond put his observations on paper. He crafted them into a speech, -which he promptly delivered before a group of friends and neighbors in -Chester County, Pennsylvania. Dubbed "The Cathedral and the Bazaar," the -speech contrasted the management styles of the GNU Project with the -management style of Torvalds and the kernel hackers. Raymond says the -response was enthusiastic, but not nearly as enthusiastic as the one he -received during the 1997 Linux Kongress, a gathering of Linux users in -Germany the next spring. @@ -275,23 +162,11 @@ Linux 1997 Linux Kongress - "At the Kongress, they gave me a standing ovation at the end of the -speech," Raymond recalls. "I took that as significant for two reasons. -For one thing, it meant they were excited by what they were hearing. -For another thing, it meant they were excited even after hearing the -speech delivered through a language barrier." Linux Kongress - - + + - Eventually, Raymond would convert the speech into a paper, also -titled "The Cathedral and the Bazaar." The paper drew its name from -Raymond's central analogy. GNU programs were "cathedrals," impressive, -centrally planned monuments to the hacker ethic, built to stand the -test of time. Linux, on the other hand, was more like "a great babbling -bazaar," a software program developed through the loose decentralizing -dynamics of the Internet. GNU @@ -300,16 +175,6 @@ - Implicit within each analogy was a comparison of Stallman and -Torvalds. Where Stallman served as the classic model of the cathedral -architect--i.e., a programming "wizard" who could disappear for 18 -months and return with something like the GNU C Compiler--Torvalds was -more like a genial dinner-party host. In letting others lead the Linux -design discussion and stepping in only when the entire table needed a -referee, Torvalds had created a development model very much reflective -of his own laid-back personality. From the Torvalds' perspective, the -most important managerial task was not imposing control but keeping the -ideas flowing. 18GNU C @@ -321,50 +186,20 @@ - Summarized Raymond, "I think Linus's cleverest and most consequential -hack was not the construction of the Linux kernel itself, but rather his -invention of the Linux development model."(4) Linux Linux (4) - In summarizing the secrets of Torvalds' managerial success, Raymond -himself had pulled off a coup. One of the audience members at the Linux -Kongress was Tim O'Reilly, publisher of O'Reilly & Associates, a company -specializing in software manuals and software-related books (and the -publisher of this book). After hearing Raymond's Kongress speech, -O'Reilly promptly invited Raymond to deliver it again at the company's -inaugural Perl Conference later that year in Monterey, California. Linux Kongress - O'Reilly & Associates + O'Reilly & Associates Linux Kongress - O'Reilly & Associates + O'Reilly & Associates Perl - Although the conference was supposed to focus on Perl, a scripting -language created by Unix hacker Larry Wall, O'Reilly assured Raymond -that the conference would address other free software technologies. -Given the growing commercial interest in Linux and Apache, a popular -free software web server, O'Reilly hoped to use the event to publicize -the role of free software in creating the entire infrastructure of the -Internet. From web-friendly languages such as Perl and Python to -back-room programs such as BIND (the Berkeley Internet Naming Daemon), -a software tool that lets users replace arcane IP numbers with the -easy-to-remember domain-name addresses (e.g., amazon.com), and -sendmail, the most popular mail program on the Internet, free software -had become an emergent phenomenon. Like a colony of ants creating a -beautiful nest one grain of sand at a time, the only thing missing was -the communal self-awareness. O'Reilly saw Raymond's speech as a good -way to inspire that self-awareness, to drive home the point that free -software development didn't start and end with the GNU Project. -Programming languages, such as Perl and Python, and Internet software, -such as BIND, sendmail, and Apache, demonstrated that free software was -already ubiquitous and influential. He also assured Raymond an even -warmer reception than the one at Linux Kongress. Unix Larry Wall Perl Perl @@ -386,47 +221,21 @@ Linux Kongress - O'Reilly was right. "This time, I got the standing ovation before the -speech," says Raymond, laughing. - As predicted, the audience was stocked not only with hackers, but -with other people interested in the growing power of the free software -movement. One contingent included a group from Netscape, the Mountain -View, California startup then nearing the end game of its three-year -battle with Microsoft for control of the web-browser market. Microsoft Netscape - Intrigued by Raymond's speech and anxious to win back lost market -share, Netscape executives took the message back to corporate -headquarters. A few months later, in January, 1998, the company -announced its plan to publish the source code of its flagship Navigator -web browser in the hopes of enlisting hacker support in future -development. Netscape 19981Netscape Navigator - When Netscape CEO Jim Barksdale cited Raymond's "Cathedral and the -Bazaar" essay as a major influence upon the company's decision, the -company instantly elevated Raymond to the level of hacker celebrity. -Determined not to squander the opportunity, Raymond traveled west to -deliver interviews, advise Netscape executives, and take part in the -eventual party celebrating the publication of Netscape Navigator's -source code. The code name for Navigator's source code was "Mozilla": a -reference both to the program's gargantuan size--30 million lines of -code--and to its heritage. Developed as a proprietary offshoot of -Mosaic, the web browser created by Marc Andreessen at the University of -Illinois, Mozilla was proof, yet again, that when it came to building -new programs, most programmers preferred to borrow on older, modifiable -programs. Netscape CEO Jim Barksdale Netscape @@ -440,12 +249,6 @@ - While in California, Raymond also managed to squeeze in a visit to VA -Research, a Santa Clara-based company selling workstations with the -GNU/Linux operating system preinstalled. Convened by Raymond, the -meeting was small. The invite list included VA founder Larry Augustin, a -few VA employees, and Christine Peterson, president of the Foresight -Institute, a Silicon Valley think tank specializing in nanotechnology. GNU/Linux VA Research @@ -454,22 +257,11 @@ Foresight Institute Christine Peterson - "The meeting's agenda boiled down to one item: how to take advantage -of Netscape's decision so that other companies might follow suit?" -Raymond doesn't recall the conversation that took place, but he does -remember the first complaint addressed. Despite the best efforts of -Stallman and other hackers to remind people that the word "free" in -free software stood for freedom and not price, the message still wasn't -getting through. Most business executives, upon hearing the term for -the first time, interpreted the word as synonymous with "zero cost," -tuning out any follow up messages in short order. Until hackers found a -way to get past this cognitive dissonance, the free software movement -faced an uphill climb, even after Netscape. - -Netscape + +Netscape - - + + @@ -479,27 +271,14 @@ Netscape - Peterson, whose organization had taken an active interest in -advancing the free software cause, offered an alternative: open source. - Peterson + Peterson - Looking back, Peterson says she came up with the open source term -while discussing Netscape's decision with a friend in the public -relations industry. She doesn't remember where she came upon the term -or if she borrowed it from another field, but she does remember her -friend disliking the term.(5) - Netscape + Netscape Peterson (5) - At the meeting, Peterson says, the response was dramatically -different. "I was hesitant about suggesting it," Peterson recalls. "I -had no standing with the group, so started using it casually, not -highlighting it as a new term." To Peterson's surprise, the term caught -on. By the end of the meeting, most of the attendees, including Raymond, -seemed pleased by it. Peterson Peterson @@ -508,18 +287,8 @@ - Raymond says he didn't publicly use the term "open source" as a -substitute for free software until a day or two after the Mozilla launch -party, when O'Reilly had scheduled a meeting to talk about free -software. Calling his meeting "the Freeware Summit," O'Reilly says he -wanted to direct media and community attention to the other deserving -projects that had also encouraged Netscape to release Mozilla. "All -these guys had so much in common, and I was surprised they didn't all -know each other," says O'Reilly. "I also wanted to let the world know -just how great an impact the free software culture had already made. -People were missing out on a large part of the free software tradition." -Mozilla +Mozilla Netscape Mozilla @@ -527,20 +296,8 @@ - - + - In putting together the invite list, however, O'Reilly made a -decision that would have long-term political consequences. He decided -to limit the list to west-coast developers such as Wall, Eric Allman, -creator of sendmail, and Paul Vixie, creator of BIND. There were -exceptions, of course: Pennsylvania-resident Raymond, who was already -in town thanks to the Mozilla launch, earned an quick invite. So did -Virginia-resident Guido van Rossum, creator of Python. "Frank Willison, -my editor in chief and champion of Python within the company, invited -him without first checking in with me," O'Reilly recalls. "I was happy -to have him there, but when I started, it really was just a local -gathering." Wall sendmail Eric Allman BIND Paul Vixie @@ -552,23 +309,10 @@ - For some observers, the unwillingness to include Stallman's name on -the list qualified as a snub. "I decided not to go to the event because -of it," says Perens, remembering the summit. Raymond, who did go, says -he argued for Stallman's inclusion to no avail. The snub rumor gained -additional strength from the fact that O'Reilly, the event's host, had -feuded publicly with Stallman over the issue of software-manual -copyrights. Prior to the meeting, Stallman had argued that free software -manuals should be as freely copyable and modifiable as free software -programs. O'Reilly, meanwhile, argued that a value-added market for -nonfree books increased the utility of free software by making it more -accessible to a wider community. The two had also disputed the title of -the event, with Stallman insisting on "Free Software" over the less -politically laden "Freeware." Perens - + @@ -580,18 +324,6 @@ - Looking back, O'Reilly doesn't see the decision to leave Stallman's -name off the invite list as a snub. "At that time, I had never met -Richard in person, but in our email interactions, he'd been inflexible -and unwilling to engage in dialogue. I wanted to make sure the GNU -tradition was represented at the meeting, so I invited John Gilmore and -Michael Tiemann, whom I knew personally, and whom I knew were -passionate about the value of the GPL but seemed more willing to engage -in a frank back-and-forth about the strengths and weaknesses of the -various free software projects and traditions. Given all the later -brouhaha, I do wish I'd invited Richard as well, but I certainly don't -think that my failure to do so should be interpreted as a lack of -respect for the GNU Project or for Richard personally." @@ -601,20 +333,10 @@ - GNU - - - - Snub or no snub, both O'Reilly and Raymond say the term "open source" -won over just enough summit-goers to qualify as a success. The attendees -shared ideas and experiences and brainstormed on how to improve free -software's image. Of key concern was how to point out the successes of -free software, particularly in the realm of Internet infrastructure, as -opposed to playing up the GNU/Linux challenge to Microsoft Windows. But -like the earlier meeting at VA, the discussion soon turned to the -problems associated with the term "free software." O'Reilly, the summit -host, remembers a particularly insightful comment from Torvalds, a -summit attendee. + GNU + + + @@ -626,30 +348,16 @@ - "Linus had just moved to Silicon Valley at that point, and he -explained how only recently that he had learned that the word `free' -had two meanings-free as in `libre' and free as in `gratis'-in English." free - Michael Tiemann, founder of Cygnus, proposed an alternative to the -troublesome "free software" term: sourceware. "Nobody got too excited -about it," O'Reilly recalls. "That's when Eric threw out the term `open -source.'" Cygnus Michael Tiemann sourceware - Although the term appealed to some, support for a change in official -terminology was far from unanimous. At the end of the one-day -conference, attendees put the three terms--free software, open source, -or sourceware--to a vote. According to O'Reilly, 9 out of the 15 -attendees voted for "open source." Although some still quibbled with -the term, all attendees agreed to use it in future discussions with the -press. "We wanted to go out with a solidarity message," O'Reilly says. - + @@ -658,14 +366,6 @@ - The term didn't take long to enter the national lexicon. Shortly -after the summit, O'Reilly shepherded summit attendees to a press -conference attended by reporters from the `New York Times', the `Wall -Street Journal', and other prominent publications. Within a few months, -Torvalds' face was appearing on the cover of `Forbes' magazine, with -the faces of Stallman, Perl creator Larry Wall, and Apache team leader -Brian Behlendorf featured in the interior spread. Open source was open -for business. @@ -675,62 +375,33 @@ - For summit attendees such as Tiemann, the solidarity message was the -most important thing. Although his company had achieved a fair amount of -success selling free software tools and services, he sensed the -difficulty other programmers and entrepreneurs faced. Tiemann - "There's no question that the use of the word free was confusing in a -lot of situations," Tiemann says. "Open source positioned itself as -being business friendly and business sensible. Free software positioned -itself as morally righteous. For better or worse we figured it was more -advantageous to align with the open source crowd." Tiemann - For Stallman, the response to the new "open source" term was slow in -coming. Raymond says Stallman briefly considered adopting the term, only -to discard it. "I know because I had direct personal conversations about -it," Raymond says. - By the end of 1998, Stallman had formulated a position: open source, -while helpful in communicating the technical advantages of free -software, also encouraged speakers to soft-pedal the issue of software -freedom. Given this drawback, Stallman would stick with the term free -software. 1998 - Summing up his position at the 1999 LinuxWorld Convention and Expo, -an event billed by Torvalds himself as a "coming out party" for the -Linux community, Stallman implored his fellow hackers to resist the -lure of easy compromise. Linux 1999 LinuxWorld Convention Expo - "Because we've shown how much we can do, we don't have to be -desperate to work with companies or compromise our goals," Stallman -said during a panel discussion. "Let them offer and we'll accept. We -don't have to change what we're doing to get them to help us. You can -take a single step towards a goal, then another and then more and more -and you'll actually reach your goal. Or, you can take a half measure -that means you don't ever take another step and you'll never get there." @@ -740,19 +411,6 @@ - Even before the LinuxWorld show, however, Stallman was showing an -increased willingness to alienate his more conciliatory peers. A few -months after the Freeware Summit, O'Reilly hosted its second annual Perl -Conference. This time around, Stallman was in attendance. During a panel -discussion lauding IBM's decision to employ the free software Apache web -server in its commercial offerings, Stallman, taking advantage of an -audience microphone, disrupted the proceedings with a tirade against -panelist John Ousterhout, creator of the Tcl scripting language. -Stallman branded Ousterhout a "parasite" on the free software community -for marketing a proprietary version of Tcl via Ousterhout's startup -company, Scriptics. "I don't think Scriptics is necessary for the -continued existence of Tcl," Stallman said to hisses from the fellow -audience members.(6) LinuxWorld Perl @@ -760,31 +418,20 @@ IBM Tcl John Ousterhout - + Ousterhout Scriptics Tcl Ousterhout Tcl Scriptics (6) - "It was a pretty ugly scene," recalls Prime Time Freeware's Rich -Morin. "John's done some pretty respectable things: Tcl, Tk, Sprite. -He's a real contributor." Prime Time Freeware Rich Morin JohnTcl Tk Sprite - Despite his sympathies for Stallman and Stallman's position, Morin -felt empathy for those troubled by Stallman's discordant behavior. Morin - Stallman's Perl Conference outburst would momentarily chase off -another potential sympathizer, Bruce Perens. In 1998, Eric Raymond -proposed launching the Open Source Initiative, or OSI, an organization -that would police the use of the term "open source" and provide a -definition for companies interested in making their own programs. -Raymond recruited Perens to draft the definition.(7) Perl Bruce Perens 1998 @@ -793,14 +440,6 @@ Perens (7) - Perens would later resign from the OSI, expressing regret that the -organization had set itself up in opposition to Stallman and the FSF. -Still, looking back on the need for a free software definition outside -the Free Software Foundation's auspices, Perens understands why other -hackers might still feel the need for distance. "I really like and -admire Richard," says Perens. "I do think Richard would do his job -better if Richard had more balance. That includes going away from free -software for a couple of months." Perens OSI FSF OSI @@ -810,14 +449,6 @@ - Stallman's monomaniacal energies would do little to counteract the -public-relations momentum of open source proponents. In August of 1998, -when chip-maker Intel purchased a stake in GNU/Linux vendor Red Hat, an -accompanying `New York Times' article described the company as the -product of a movement "known alternatively as free software and open -source."(8) Six months later, a John Markoff article on Apple Computer -was proclaiming the company's adoption of the "open source" Apache -server in the article headline.(9) 19988 Intel GNU/Linux Red Hat @@ -827,15 +458,6 @@ John Markoff Apache (9) - Such momentum would coincide with the growing momentum of companies -that actively embraced the "open source" term. By August of 1999, Red -Hat, a company that now eagerly billed itself as "open source," was -selling shares on Nasdaq. In December, VA Linux--formerly VA -Research--was floating its own IPO to historical effect. Opening at $30 -per share, the company's stock price exploded past the $300 mark in -initial trading only to settle back down to the $239 level. -Shareholders lucky enough to get in at the bottom and stay until the -end experienced a 698% increase in paper wealth, a Nasdaq record. 19998 Red Hat @@ -846,12 +468,6 @@ VA NASDAQ 698% - Among those lucky shareholders was Eric Raymond, who, as a company -board member since the Mozilla launch, had received 150,000 shares of -VA Linux stock. Stunned by the realization that his essay contrasting -the Stallman-Torvalds managerial styles had netted him $36 million in -potential wealth, Raymond penned a follow-up essay. In it, Raymond mused -on the relationship between the hacker ethic and monetary wealth: Mozilla VA Linux 150,000 @@ -859,13 +475,6 @@ - Reporters often ask me these days if I think the open-source - community will be corrupted by the influx of big money. I tell - them what I believe, which is this: commercial demand for - programmers has been so intense for so long that anyone who can be - seriously distracted by money is already gone. Our community has - been self-selected for caring about other things-accomplishment, - pride, artistic passion, and each other.(10) @@ -874,16 +483,6 @@ (10) - Whether or not such comments allayed suspicions that Raymond and -other open source proponents had simply been in it for the money, they -drove home the open source community's ultimate message: all you needed -to sell the free software concept is a friendly face and a sensible -message. Instead of fighting the marketplace head-on as Stallman had -done, Raymond, Torvalds, and other new leaders of the hacker community -had adopted a more relaxed approach-ignoring the marketplace in some -areas, leveraging it in others. Instead of playing the role of -high-school outcasts, they had played the game of celebrity, magnifying -their power in the process. @@ -895,14 +494,6 @@ - "On his worst days Richard believes that Linus Torvalds and I -conspired to hijack his revolution," Raymond says. "Richard's rejection -of the term open source and his deliberate creation of an ideological -fissure in my view comes from an odd mix of idealism and -territoriality. There are people out there who think it's all Richard's -personal ego. I don't believe that. It's more that he so personally -associates himself with the free software idea that he sees any threat -to that as a threat to himself." @@ -911,14 +502,6 @@ - Ironically, the success of open source and open source advocates -such as Raymond would not diminish Stallman's role as a leader. If -anything, it gave Stallman new followers to convert. Still, the Raymond -territoriality charge is a damning one. There are numerous instances of -Stallman sticking to his guns more out of habit than out of principle: -his initial dismissal of the Linux kernel, for example, and his current -unwillingness as a political figure to venture outside the realm of -software issues. @@ -927,30 +510,17 @@ Linux - Then again, as the recent debate over open source also shows, in -instances when Stallman has stuck to his guns, he's usually found a way -to gain ground because of it. "One of Stallman's primary character -traits is the fact he doesn't budge," says Ian Murdock. "He'll wait up -to a decade for people to come around to his point of view if that's -what it takes." Ian Murdock - - + + - Murdock, for one, finds that unbudgeable nature both refreshing and -valuable. Stallman may no longer be the solitary leader of the free -software movement, but he is still the polestar of the free software -community. "You always know that he's going to be consistent in his -views," Murdock says. "Most people aren't like that. Whether you agree -with him or not, you really have to respect that." Murdock - + Murdock -